Historical Highlights in Education
Fighting for Women's Equality
Strong Girls, Strong Futures

Historical Highlights

ERA has led education equity efforts at schools and college campus across the country for nearly four decades and has been instrumental in the evolution of law prohibiting sex discrimination at schools, including Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. See ERA’s Title IX Timeline. Highlights include:

  • ERA’s early litigation efforts clarified that Title IX prohibits sexual harassment (Alexander v. Yale University (1976) and that schools will also be liable for failing to stop peer sexual harassment (Doe v. Petaluma City School District (1994)).
  • In 1993, ERA filed the first ever Title IX “hostile environment” class complaint with the Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights on behalf of faculty and students of UC Santa Cruz to challenge sexual harassment and assault on campus.
  • ERA has challenged barriers to girls and women in sports for four decades. As early as 1975, ERA was fighting stereotyping that kept girls out of soccer leagues (Love v. California Youth Soccer Association). More recently, ERA has taken on inequities in college sports, achieving a landmark settlement on behalf of a class of female athletes in Brust v. Regents of the University of California and setting Title IX precedent with wins at trial and before the Ninth Circuit on behalf of women wrestlers in Mansourian v. Regents of the University of California.
  • ERA has long advocated for women educators seeking equal treatment, opportunity for promotion, and pay. ERA’s Higher Education Legal Advocacy Project tackled the most pressing inequity issues faced by women in academia through litigation, higher education roundtables, and fighting legislative efforts to end affirmative action in hiring by public entities.
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